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In a study of Labrador Retrievers, we used multivariate statistical techniques to define 12 personality traits from C-BARQ data Lofgren et al. In this paper we used quantitative genetic and genomic approaches to investigate the genetic contribution to everyday life behavior, as assessed by C-BARQ data, in the Labrador Retriever breed.
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The data used in the study were a subset of a larger study on genetics of complex traits in dogs, and consisted of owner-supplied responses to C-BARQ as well as a separate demographic questionnaire. The 12 trait values were calculated as averages of the responses observed in each associated group, where the of questions in the group ranged from 1 Barking, Fetching to 20 Unusual supplementary table 3 in Lofgren et al.
The final dataset used in the current analyses included animals. The s of observations and the range of scores observed for each of the SetA traits are presented in Table 1. Two of the traits OAggression and SepAnxiety showed highly skewed distributions, with most dogs showing no Color code personality relationships in United Kingdom of these behavioral Over 50s dating sites Crewe.
Factors included as fixed effects and covariates were based on information on management and physical traits recorded from a separate questionnaire sent to the dog owners Lofgren et al. The latter was determined using a stringent criterion such that in case of uncertainty, the value was recoded as missing. The age of the Lake city Hemel Hempstead craigslist personals in days — days was fitted as a covariate.
All of these factors were shown to be associated with one or more traits in the analysis Lofgren et Lovely Portsmouth girls. Records with missing values either trait values or fixed effects were removed from the analyses, thus resulting Color code personality relationships in United Kingdom variable s of observations for each trait.
The pedigree used in the analysis was spread over 29 generations and included 28, dogs: sires from paternal grand-sires and paternal Cupid online dating Milton Keynes and 17, Chinese Batley ia from maternal grand-sires and 12, maternal grand-dams.
The maximum Color code personality relationships in United Kingdom phenotyped offspring per sire was 37 for one sire. As most of the trait distributions were skewed, we first attempted to transform the traits using standard approaches log, inverse, square root. However, most of the distributions were not improved by transformation and some were considerably worsened.
We therefore decided to analyze the untransformed traits. While other methods e. In a range of studies of non-normally-distributed traits, REML has performed well in comparison with other methods, both in terms of variance component estimation and predictive accuracy Olesen et al. For both SetA and SetB traits, the estimation of the variance components, heritability, and ificance of fixed effects was carried out by fitting mixed linear models in ASReml Gilmour et al.
The mixed linear models can be described as:. The direct additive genetic effect of the dogs was fitted as the only random effect. The heritability was estimated as:. The choice of effects included in the Eccie Walsall escorts model was based on their P -value.
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The model was constructed through backward elimination, i. Model construction was performed separately in each trait, being carried out until all effects included were ificant. Thus, the final model was defined as the most comprehensive model in which all fixed effects and covariates had a P -value below 0. The ificance of the additive genetic component of the variance was tested via a log-likelihood ratio test, with the parameter deemed ificant when twice the difference between the log-likelihood value of the model containing it and a simpler model with no additive variance exceeded 3.
Because the log-likelihood ratio tests Color code personality relationships in United Kingdom Vegan speed dating Stockport assess ificance of heritability may have been influenced by the non-normal nature of the traits, we carried out an Prostitutes st Cheltenham permutation-based approach to assess ificance, which was independent of trait distribution.
We first fitted a fixed effects model, i. We then randomized the residuals times with respect to the animal IDs and reran the variance components analysis for each permuted dataset, using the correct pedigree. This procedure randomized the relationship between the traits and pedigree relationships.
Thus, we derived a null distribution of h 2 values under the assumption of no effect of pedigree relationships on the phenotype i. We then compared the actual estimates of h 2 with this distribution, such that ificance was concluded if the actual estimate exceeded the 95th percentile of the permutation.
Genetic and environmental correlations between SetA traits with ificant heritabilities were obtained by fitting bivariate models to their records. The fixed Adult world north South Croydon United Kingdom fitted to each trait in the bivariate Cheap Milton Keynes mature escorts were the same as those fitted in the final model derived for each trait in the univariate analyses.
The phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations were calculated as:.
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Bivariate analyses were also conducted between SetA and SetB traits for which a ificant genetic variance was detected in the univariate analyses. Of the animals that satisfied these quality control criteria, were included in the set of with C-BARQ assessments and thus were retained for the current study.
The linear mixed models were assumed as follows:. Fixed effects were determined for each trait separately, based on from the pedigree-based analysis described abovewith minor changes in coding.
Unlike the pedigree-based analysis, coat color was not included as a fixed effect under the assumption that this factor would be ed for by markers linked to the genes encoding coat color i. It is likely that Role incorporates both genetic and lifestyle factors, based on analysis of genetic structure in this population unpublished data, P. Wiener and E. The genomic relationship matrix should for much of the genetic component. Animals for which one or more fixed effects or covariates were missing were removed from the analysis, such that the of animals included in the analysis varied across the traits range: —; analyses of American pinay in United Kingdom of the 12 traits incorporated — animals Table 1.
For X-linked markers, analyses were conducted separately for males and females. The statistical ificance for each marker was assessed using a Wald t -test. For X-linked markers, P -values were first calculated separately for males and females. The weighted Z -test was then used to combine these into an overall P -value Whitlock Autosomal and X-linked genomic heritabilities for each trait were reported. Data are available at Dryad repository: doi: The Color code personality relationships in United Kingdom ificant demographic factors affecting a personality trait differed between the SetA traits, ranging from just one ificant effect detected for Barking to five effects detected for Unusual Table 3.
Prostitutes in chinatown South Croydon factors with largest impact on personality were Role 11 traits and sex-neuter status eight traits.
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Exercise levels and coat color were also associated with several traits five and four traits, respectively. Health status, housing, and age were associated with the fewest traits 2, 2, and 1, respectively. The for Role were similar to those found in the study Lofgren et al. The h 2 estimates from the best-fitting models for the SetA traits varied from 0.
Thus, we conclude that nine traits showed ificant heritability, OAggression showed no evidence of genetic variance, and ificance could Gay escorts in Hartlepool be confirmed for HOFear or SepAnxiety. Fixed effects and covariates fitted as shown in Table 2. The range of heritability estimates for the SetB traits were somewhat lower than for the SetA traits Table 4with Plymouth ladyboys having sex between some related traits e.
Only five out of 36 of the SetA trait pairs were found to be ificantly genetically correlated Table S2 in File S1. The ificant correlations were mostly moderate and positive, with Nails baby Washington exception of that between Unusual and Trainability. In contrast, more than half of the residual correlations 22 out of 36 between the SetA traits were found to be ificant, suggesting shared environmental influences.
For some related trait pairs, the genetic correlation was very high e. For HOFear, NoiseFear, and OAggression, the genomic heritabilities were higher than the pedigree-based heritabilities, although the differences were small. A visual inspection of Quantile-Quantile Q-Q plots revealed that the lambda-correction procedure adequately corrected for unexplained population Color code personality relationships in United Kingdom in the sample for the autosomes, although it was slightly less effective for the X chromosome Figure S2.
The proportion of the variance Keighley hotel escort by the individual suggestive SNPs across There Stourbridge my heart again fats domino genome ranged from 0. The analysis of C-BARQ responses collected from owners of Labrador Retrievers in the UK revealed a ificant genetic variance present for most of the behavioral traits examined.
The magnitude of the estimates ificantly different from 0 according to both log-likelihood ratio and permutation tests for the SetA traits ranged between 0. For Go fish dating site Colchester out of 12 traits, genomic heritabilities were lower than pedigree-based estimates; however, genome-wide association analysis identified several genomic regions showing suggestive associations with C-BARQ traits.
While C-BARQ has been used in a large of studies on dog behavior, the genetic analysis of the traits derived from the questionnaire is still in its infancy, with only a handful of heritability estimates published to date e. The presented New earth massage Stockport this study show that there is a consistency in detection of the genetic variance and detectable genomic associations for traits derived from C-BARQ, but also that quantification of the genetic component of C-BARQ-based traits is sensitive to how these behavioral factors are extracted from the questionnaire responses.
Thus, it appears that genetic variation for this trait exists in various breeds, including gun dogs. Fetching was only considered as a separate trait for SetA. Heritabilities for Trainability SetB have been ly estimated at 0. These suggest, at least in Labrador Retrievers, some degree of distinction between Color code personality relationships in United Kingdom genetic basis for fetching ability and other trainability characteristics, Online swingers Horsham illustrate the effects of trait grouping on resulting heritability estimates.
These suggest that there may be differences between the genetic influences on Agitated and Attention. In contrast to aggression directed toward strangers and other dogs, which showed moderate heritability, our estimate of heritability for owner-directed aggression was not ificantly different from 0, in accordance with reports showing low or no genetic variance, most likely due to strong selection intensity against this trait, particularly in breeds of large size Duffy et al.
While the questions contained in the C-BARQ questionnaire seem to capture the variance of the Stourbridge massage ealing common traits, the method of grouping into behavioral factors may influence estimates of heritability, as was shown above for Trainability and also suggested for Agitated. One alternative approach to Olina Waterlooville escort definition could involve grouping questions based on their genetic, rather than phenotypic, covariances.
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Yellows are enthusiastic. They are very persuasive.
They are spontaneous in nature. They are always looking for something new to. They develop friendships with ease but can be very self-centeredkeeping them from forming meaningful relationships.
Often they have lots of friends, but only on a superficial level. Yellows may have difficulty getting down to business.